Project Background and justification
After the aftermath of disputes over the results of presidential election in 2014 and formation of National Unity Government (NUG), a national discourse on constitutional reform and alternative political systems seems necessary more than ever in Afghanistan. The national unity government is formed as a result of an agreement which emphasizes on the necessity of constitutional amendment to define the position of the chief executive beside the presidency. In this prospect, even the possibility of a change in political system is considered. In addition to this core issue, during recent year, experts and critics have suggested several opinions on the need for a reform of political system.
According to our survey on constitutional amendment, a majority of people are in favor of changing the political system and think about other alternatives beside presidential system. The responses to the question about the best form of political system for the country show that less than half of the respondents (49%) are in favor of the presidential system and less than 30% choose the parliamentary system. while 22% of the respondents believe the semi-presidential system is suitable for the country. But the majority is asking for reforms.1
Therefore, we need a more comprehensive study over ideas and point of views about different political systems, especially presidential system, semi- presidential and parliamentary systems. In this study we mainly focus on the comparison between presidential and parliamentary systems as tow trending notions for reforming political system in Afghanistan.
Project Goal and Objectives
1- Analyzing and examining the people’s perception about the reform of political system.
2- Analyzing and examining the need for reviewing and reforming the political system.
3- Enhancing and betterment of the capacity of the current political system.
4- Comparing two political systems (presidential and parliamentary) as alternatives.
Objectives of the project
1. Examining the level of existing problems in the present political system.
2. Helping with decision making about the reform and review of the political system.
3. Examining the possible solutions for political problems.
4. Publishing and distributing a scientific research about the need and importance for reform in political system.
Project Outcome and results
In light of the fact that since the ratification of the constitution and enforcement of the current political system, the social, economic and political situation in the country has been changed, this project has the following expected outcomes:
1- Recognizing the challenges and problems in current political system.
2- Presenting practical solutions for reviewing and reforming the political system.
3- Refining and strengthening the present political system of the country.
4- Presenting a perspective to the main arguments for political reform.
Beneficiaries and Stakeholders
Beneficiaries of this project can be categorized in two parts:
1- Specific beneficiaries: the results and findings of this survey can be used by legislative and executive branches of government. Taking the fact that the social and political situations in Afghanistan are changing and the fact that the current political system was enforced more than a decade ago, reforming the political system in accordance with new social and political requirements can be a beacon for the ship of legitimacy of the political leadership in the turbulent sea of problems in the country. Therefore, the leadership of Afghanistan is the specific beneficiary of this project.
2- General beneficiaries: the ordinary citizens of the country are all among the general beneficiaries of this project.
This research project will be carried out through conducting an in-depth interview with important stakeholders including practitioners, MPs, government officials, office holders of elected bodies, members of civil society and members of academia. Based on the nature of the study, collected will be analyzed through qualitative methods to present policy recommendations in final report.